Together with the house at no. They soon became one of the wealthiest and most influential patrician families.
Together with the house at no. The village's name has been variously spelled Kopernik, [f] Copernik, Copernic, Kopernic, Coprirnik, and today Koperniki. Nicolaus' father was actively engaged in the politics of the day and supported Poland and the cities against the Teutonic Order.
Copernicus's father married Nicolas copernicus Watzenrode, the astronomer's mother, between and They soon became one of the wealthiest and most influential patrician families.
He was a bitter opponent of the Teutonic Order, [g] and its Grand Master once referred to him as "the devil incarnate". He was a friend and key advisor to each ruler, and his influence greatly strengthened the ties between Warmia and Poland proper.
Arguments for German being Copernicus's native tongue are that he was born in a predominantly German-speaking city and that, while studying canon law at Bologna inhe signed into the German natio Natio Germanorum —a student organization which, according to its by-laws, was open to students of all kingdoms and states whose mother-tongue was German.
The toponym Kopernik modern Koperniki has been variously tied to the Polish word for dill koper and German for copper Kupfer.
As was common in the period, the spellings of both the toponym and the surname vary greatly. Copernicus "was rather indifferent about orthography ".
On the title page of De revolutionibus, Rheticus published the name in the genitiveor possessivecase as "Nicolai Copernici". For unclear reasons—probably due to opposition from part of the chapter, who appealed to Rome—Copernicus' installation was delayed, inclining Watzenrode to send both his nephews to study canon law in Italy, seemingly with a view to furthering their ecclesiastic careers and thereby also strengthening his own influence in the Warmia chapter.
It is unclear whether he was ever ordained a priest. He met the famous astronomer Domenico Maria Novara da Ferrara and became his disciple and assistant. He verified its observations about certain peculiarities in Ptolemy's theory of the Moon's motion, by conducting on 9 March at Bologna a memorable observation of the occultation of Aldebaranthe brightest star in the Taurus constellation, by the moon.
Copernicus the humanist sought confirmation for his growing doubts through close reading of Greek and Latin authors PythagorasAristarchos of SamosCleomedesCiceroPliny the ElderPlutarchPhilolausHeraclidesEcphantosPlatogathering, especially while at Paduafragmentary historic information about ancient astronomical, cosmological and calendar systems.
Here, too, however, he continued his astronomical work begun at Bologna, observing, for example, a lunar eclipse on the night of 5—6 November According to a later account by RheticusCopernicus also—probably privately, rather than at the Roman Sapienza —as a "Professor Mathematum" professor of astronomy delivered, "to numerous After on 28 July receiving from the chapter a two-year extension of leave in order to study medicine since "he may in future be a useful medical advisor to our Reverend Superior [Bishop Lucas Watzenrode ] and the gentlemen of the chapter"in late summer or in the fall he returned again to Italy, probably accompanied by his brother Andrew [t] and by Canon Bernhard Sculteti.
This time he studied at the University of Paduafamous as a seat of medical learning, and—except for a brief visit to Ferrara in May—June to pass examinations for, and receive, his doctorate in canon law—he remained at Padua from fall to summer It was probably the Padua years that saw the beginning of his Hellenistic interests.
He familiarized himself with Greek language and culture with the aid of Theodorus Gaza 's grammar and J.
Chrestonius' dictionaryexpanding his studies of antiquity, begun at Bologna, to the writings of Basilius BessarionLorenzo Valla and others. There also seems to be evidence that it was during his Padua stay that the idea finally crystallized, of basing a new system of the world on the movement of the Earth.
No doubt it was soon after at latest, in fall that he left Italy for good to return to Warmia. He made one of Venus, with an error of minutes.
Four were made of Mars, with errors of 2, 20, 77, and minutes. Four observations were made of Jupiter, with errors of 32, 51, and 25 minutes. He made four of Saturn, with errors of 31, 20, 23 and -4 minutes.
In his official capacity, he took part in nearly all his uncle's political, ecclesiastic and administrative-economic duties. They are of three kinds—"moral," offering advice on how people should live; "pastoral", giving little pictures of shepherd life; and "amorous", comprising love poems.
They are arranged to follow one another in a regular rotation of subjects. Copernicus had translated the Greek verses into Latin prose, and he now published his version as Theophilacti scolastici Simocati epistolae morales, rurales et amatoriae interpretatione latina, which he dedicated to his uncle in gratitude for all the benefits he had received from him.
With this translation, Copernicus declared himself on the side of the humanists in the struggle over the question whether Greek literature should be revived. It was a succinct theoretical description of the world's heliocentric mechanism, without mathematical apparatus, and differed in some important details of geometric construction from De revolutionibus; but it was already based on the same assumptions regarding Earth's triple motions.
The Commentariolus, which Copernicus consciously saw as merely a first sketch for his planned book, was not intended for printed distribution. The Commentariolus would appear complete in print for the first time only in It was only in early June that the chapter gave Copernicus an "external curia"—a house outside the defensive walls of the cathedral mount.
In he purchased the northwestern tower within the walls of the Frombork stronghold.
He would maintain both these residences to the end of his life, despite the devastation of the chapter's buildings by a raid against Frauenburg carried out by the Teutonic Order in Januaryduring which Copernicus's astronomical instruments were probably destroyed.
Copernicus conducted astronomical observations in —16 presumably from his external curia; and in —43, from an unidentified "small tower" turriculausing primitive instruments modeled on ancient ones—the quadranttriquetrumarmillary sphere.Nicolaus Copernicus University main page.
Foreign students and scientists with a chance for grants. Nicolaus Copernicus: Nicolaus Copernicus, Polish astronomer who proposed that the Sun is the centre of the solar system and that the planets circle the Sun.
Nicolaus Copernicus (–) was a mathematician and astronomer who proposed that the sun was stationary in the center of the universe and the earth revolved around it. Disturbed by the failure of Ptolemy's geocentric model of the universe to follow Aristotle's requirement for the uniform.
Watch video · Nicolaus Copernicus was instrumental in establishing the concept of a heliocentric system, in which planets revolve around the sun.
Learn more at webkandii.com Nicolaus Copernicus: Nicolaus Copernicus, Polish astronomer who proposed that the Sun is the centre of the solar system and that the planets circle the Sun.
Nicolaus Copernicus: Nicolaus Copernicus, Polish astronomer who proposed that the Sun is the centre of the solar system and that the planets circle the Sun.