Definitions[ edit ] Waste may be defined differently in legislation and regulations of the federal government or individual states. Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations dealing with protection of the environment contains at least four different definitions of waste at sections Definitions may apply broadly to solidliquidand gaseous forms or may be specific to one or a subset identified by a threshold characteristic such as toxicity or radioactivity. Discarding, discharge, or disposal as opposed to sales is often a requirement for identification as waste, although stored or recycled material may be included within some definitions; and those definitions may reduce recycling options.
Due to to the historical nature of the content, it has not been updated. For Part 1 of this article, please click here.
With this growth came increased refuse generation. The impacts of open-burning dumps on public health became a concern. Experience in the military with sanitary fill methods and the interests by some local governments in eliminating open dumps led to increased efforts to dispose of refuse in a sanitary manner, but what prescribed a sanitary manner was unknown.
An example of a landfill of the late s was described in a report prepared by the Sanitary Engineering Research Project of the University of California in At the end of the day pigs were allowed on the spread-out refuse for overnight feeding.
The next day the pigs were herded off and the refuse was pushed to the edge of the fill for burning. The reasons for changing this practice are obvious. Open burning of refuse created air pollution.
Allowing pigs to eat raw garbage was not a sanitary practice. If open burning was not practiced to conserve space, compaction would be needed, but how much? Early studies indicated that dumping in surface water and groundwater was not a good idea. Early work by the United States Army and by solid waste pioneers indicated that soil cover was a good idea, but how much and how often?
There was no established guidance or frame of reference to set minimum requirements for what constituted a sanitary landfill. Clearly, if the open dump was to be replaced by a far more complex but safer method of disposal, the field would need to separate good practices from unacceptable practices to ensure that a sanitary landfill did indeed dispose of refuse in a sanitary manner.
The titles indicated that our knowledge of the sanitary landfill was increasing. The papers connoted a growing awareness of settlement, gas generation, and fires in sanitary landfills—the first hints about the potential of groundwater contamination.
The commitment of the US Public Health Service USPHS to provide national leadership to eliminate open-burning dumps and replace them with sanitary landfills also served as the basis for a broader national strategy to improve the management of refuse.
Therefore, the stage was set for agents of change to create a new technology: InRalph Black of the California State Health Department began research on how much cover material was necessary and at what frequency cover should be applied to deal with flies.
Over a period of time, working with entomologist A. Barnes, their efforts indicated that 2. Operational limitations compaction equipment would penetrate cover of that thicknesshowever, led the researchers to recommend that 6 in.
These findings served as the basis for establishing the standard for daily cover of 6 in. Key concepts and recommendations include: No mention is made of monitoring. They, however, served as the basis for the USPHS promotion of the sanitary landfill with state agencies and in their training programs.
USPHS training programs were expanded to provide techniques for closing open dumps and designing and operating landfills to meet the guidelines. New publications were developed to better explain the sanitary landfill to regulators, designers, operators, and the public.
The term refuse was being phased out and replaced with the term solid waste. State governments increased their investments in solid waste management. State solid waste programs, normally a part of state vector-control efforts, began to be formed as separate entities.
Even with such dramatic progress, an accepted definition and understanding of what actually constituted a sanitary landfill remained an open issue. Much of this can be attributed to the fact that as we learned more we needed to do more; the evolution was continuing.
Landfill gas migration and the possibility of explosions resulted in a need for control measures and eventually birthed a new industry to capture and utilize the gas as an energy source. Studies began to signal that leachate from landfills could contaminate groundwater, resulting in the birth of groundwater monitoring systems for landfills.The United States came in fifteenth.
Source: “Environment: Municipal Waste Generation” Conference Board of Canada. Even more significant, whereas the per-capita weight of MSW generated in the U.S.
has increased by only a few percent between and , Canada’s per-capita MSW output has increased by about 40% in the same time period. GARBAGE: The Black Sheep of the Family A Brief History of Waste Regulation in the United States and Oklahoma.
By Jon Roberts, Land Protection Division. The newly established Metropolitan Board of Health was the first government agency dedicated to truly professional sanitary reform in the United States, and New York’s sanitary legislation served as a model for other local and state bills.
GARBAGE: The Black Sheep of the Family A Brief History of Waste Regulation in the United States and Oklahoma. By Jon Roberts, Land Protection Division. A Filthy History: When New Yorkers Lived Knee-Deep in Trash.
By Hunter Oatman-Stanford — June 24th, a veteran and a self-titled “sanitary engineer” and a bit of a showman, named George Waring. Maine probably does include the easternmost point in the Continental United States where you can be 5 miles from a paved road, but it is.
Sanitation Practices in Pre-Chadwickian america 1 fever, measles, mumps, and diarrheal disorders.
|Waste Disposal||By Roberta Crowell Barbalace The study of garbage has given us much insight into civilizations of yesteryear. It has been instrumental in solving crimes.|
|The Future of Public Health.||The Black Sheep of the Family A Brief History of Waste Regulation in the United States and Oklahoma By Jon Roberts, Land Protection Division If a song were written that metaphorically compared the amount of time and money provided for solid waste management systems over the years to that provided for its big brothers, water and wastewater systems, it might go something like: I guess he makes about a million dollars a year off the folks' own insurance plan.|
|General DEQ Links||Depending on what you put in the rubbish receptacle, it might get a new life as a plastic or could be forever buried deep where it essentially composts and degrades.|
|Landfills in the United States - Wikipedia||Chapter 2 explained the committee's ideal for the public health system—how it should be arranged for handling current and future threats to health. In this chapter the history of the existing public health system is briefly described.|
Disruptive events, such as the Revolutionary War, reintroduced epidemics to major cities and towns.7 Smallpox was probably .